Astm c 1556 pdfASTM C1556: Bulk Chloride Diffusion (Diffusion Coefficient)Standard Subscriptions
This standard is issued under the fixed designation C ; the number immediately 1 This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C09 on. Ca() Standard Test Method for Determining the Apparent Chloride Diffusion Coefficient Format, Pages, Price. PDF ASTM License Agreement. C - 04 Standard Test Method for Determining the Apparent Chloride Diffusion Coefficient of PDF, 7, $, ADD TO CART ASTM License Agreement. 3. ASTM C - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. ASTM C - following links. eatthisbook.club%20papers/Paper%pdf I recommend you to have a look at it, besides to ASTM C, because the former.Popular in Science. Apparatus 5. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility. These factors combined can increase the chloride diffusion coefficient, fostering the chlorides ingression in the reinforced structure and initiating the corrosion mechanisms. Refer to Figs. Astm c 1556 pdf test followed the procedures described in the standard NBR [ 42 ]. Add to Alert PDF. more information raspberry pi voice control python 2. Referenced Documents (purchase separately) The documents listed below are referenced within the subject standard but are not provided as part of the standard.. ASTM Standards. C31/C31M Practice for Making and Curing Concrete Test Specimens in the Field. C42/C42M Test Method for Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete. C Terminology Relating to Concrete and. 3. ASTM C - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. ASTM C - /5(1). Jul 26, · ASTM C PDF - This standard is issued under the fixed designation C ; the number immediately 1 This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C09 on. ASTM. Skip to content. PDF Service ASTM C PDF. Home. Art. ASTM C PDF. ASTM C PDF.
Analysis of the chloride diffusion coefficients by different test methods in concrete mixtures containing metakaolin and high-slag blast-furnace cement. This study aims to evaluate the chloride diffusion coefficient and the service life SL of concretes containing metakaolin and high-slag blast-furnace cement HSBFC.
Statistical analysis was performed by means of Analysis of Variance ANOVA and Tukey's Test to the chlorides diffusion coefficients obtained from different test methods. Similarity between diffusion by immersion BDT and non-stationary migration test RMT and multiregime method results was noted, however, with differences regarding to the stationary regime. This study also showed that HSBFC partial replacement by metakaolin can be beneficial even at later ages, as in days.
In this scenario, the cement partial replacement by supplementary cementing materials SCM emerges as a solution for reducing the CO 2 emissions and the consumption of energy and natural resources. The SCM use can occur in the production of blended cement or in the concrete batching, at fresh state. Since for each ton of pig iron produced, kg of slag is generated [ 10 ], an annual global generation of approximately million tons is expected.
Another SCM commonly used in concrete production is metakaolin, a fine pozzolanic material, highly reactive, capable of accelerating the pozzolanic reaction and contributing to the pore-filling effect [ 11 , 12 ]. Regarding the increase in concrete compressive strength, DUAN et al. Since metakaolin can be produced with lower energy consumption than cement, its use also presents economic and environmental advantages [ 11 ]. Carbonation and chloride penetration are widely known aggressive mechanisms that cause reinforced concrete deterioration.
These mechanisms combined or separately are considered in service life SL prediction models of reinforced concrete structures. The SL prediction by chloride penetration is important, especially for structures near the sea. Prediction by spontaneous mechanisms real-life situation is time consuming, being necessary the use of accelerated mechanisms of chlorides penetration, performed in laboratory tests.
In the case of diffusion by immersion test, the exposure to the aggressive agent is increased [ 20 - 21 ]. Alternatively, in the migration test an electric current is used to propel the ionic movement from the cathode to the anode. From these tests results, represented by chlorides diffusion coefficients, it can be estimated the SL of the reinforced concrete structures [ 22 - 24 ].
Nevertheless, there is still debate on the most adequate methods for obtaining chloride diffusion coefficients and regarding its results sensitivity [ 23 , 25 - 27 ]. The coefficients can be obtained by several methods, such as: 1 immersion in saline solution, presenting a chlorides concentration profile, as according to bulk diffusion test BDT - NT BUILD [ 28 ]; 2 steady-state migration, by reading the conductivity, according to multiregime method - UNE [ 29 ]; and 3 migration with a colorimetric indicator, according to rapid migration test RMT - NT BUILD [ 30 ].
Each method presents its advantages and limitations. However, a high value of potential difference may influence test results, causing excessive heat and damaging the concrete specimens [ 31 ]. Furthermore, some authors state that the use of pozzolans can cause oscillations in migration test results due to the reduction in the conductivity of specimens [ 32 ].
For the test using colorimetric indicator, discussions regarding the calculation method for SL prediction from its coefficients are also common [ 27 ].
Thus, the comparison of results from these different methods is of significant contribution in order to provide an improved diagnostic and increase the reliability of the chloride resistance assessment. Studies suggested that this combination can improve the mechanical performance of concretes [ 19 , 33 , 34 ], and that this combination can be beneficial in relation to CPR. Nevertheless, there still a lack of studies on SL prediction and concrete durability of the combined use of these materials, mainly regarding CPR evaluated by different test methods.
Therefore, this study analyses the chloride diffusion coefficient by different methods and performs a SL prediction of concretes using metakaolin combined with HSBFC. The physical and chemical properties of metakaolin and cement can be seen in Table 1. Note: The chemical properties were provided by the cement and metakaolin manufacturers, determined using X-ray fluorescence XRF.
The physical and chemical characterisation of the metakaolin was performed to verify its pozzolanic activity, as according to the requirements of Brazilian standard NBR [ 36 ] and can be seen in Table 3. It can be concluded that metakaolin fulfilled all the requirements according to the standard regarding pozzolanic activity.
Furthermore, in Figure 1 can be seen the comparison of these test results of metakaolin and other SCM, such as silica fume, ornamental stone processing waste, and soda-lime glass waste. Specimens were produced using a vertical axis mixer and then cured in a moist chamber for 28, 91 and days. Table 4 presents the concrete mixtures proportions and the slump values.
The superplasticizer content adopted was 0. Initially, the 0. Table 5 presents a summary of the standards used for the test procedures along with the size and quantity of cylindrical specimens and age of testing. The test followed the procedures described in the standard NBR [ 42 ]. Four specimens of each mixture were tested at 28, 91 and days.
For each mixture, three specimens 50 mm thick and mm in diameter were extracted from the central part of the single original cylinder specimen mm height, mm diameter , procedure statistically validated by HELENE and MEDEIROS [ 45 ], and then tested at 28 and 91 days. Electric current readings were taken every 30 min, totalling 6 h of test. The electric current multiplied by time, expressed in coulombs C , represents the concrete resistance to chloride ions penetration.
The Figure 2 presents the apparatus used and its diagram. This experiment is commonly adopted in the literature, in studies involving the concrete resistance to chloride penetration [ 46 - 48 ]. A Test diagram; B Ongoing test. It provides quantitative data, as final chloride penetration depth and chloride diffusion coefficient. The test can last from 24 h, for ordinary concrete, to 96 h, for high performance concrete. The test duration and the voltage to be adopted will depend of the initial passing current reading in the concrete specimen when applied a potential different of 30 V.
In this study, the average test duration for each specimen was 24 h. The test procedure is represented in Figure 3. This equation has also been used by Kim et al. The test is based in the migration of the ions present in an electrolyte to an opposite pole, as a response to an electric field when applied 12 V.
The concrete specimen is placed between different solutions. In of the solutions, containing chloride ions 1 M NaCl , the potential difference applied attracts the ions from the negative to the positive electrolyte anolyte , migrating and crossing the concrete specimen Figure 4A.
The increase of chlorides concentration in the anolyte is measured by the determination of the electric conductivity. After this period, the flow of chloride ions becomes constant, corresponding to the steady-state chloride diffusion coefficient Ds. The test is finished when both coefficients are determined. The x 20 mm specimens used in this test are obtained from the x mm original specimen core.
A and B : test procedure; C : schematic graph of test results. Daily conductivity readings in the anolyte were made. The conductivity is then converted to chlorides concentrations by an equation, evaluating its development over time. According to the standard, the test time for ordinary concretes is approximately two weeks; however, for high performance concrete, this time can increase significantly, having been around eight weeks for the present study. A Ongoing test; B Conductivity and potential difference readings.
The bulk diffusion test BDT is a method for obtaining chloride diffusion by immersion, represented in the NT BUILD [ 28 ], and consists in keeping the concrete specimens immersed in a chloride solution g of NaCl by litre to induce accelerated diffusion mechanisms.
The specimens were cured for 28 days and immersed for days. The standard recommends splitting the cylindrical specimens in two, perpendicular to its axis. One half is used as the test specimen, being the sawed face exposed in the NaCl solution, in the other half, the initial chlorides concentration is determined. The immersed test specimen is placed in a hermetically sealed plastic container, being the solution agitated weekly.
The chlorides profile is obtained by milling the material, parallel to the exposed surface. At least 8 layers must be milled. The thickness of the layers must be adjusted accordingly to the expected chloride profile, such that at least six places encompass the profile between the exposed surface and the depth reached by the chlorides. The test results, superficial chlorides concentration C s and non-steady-state chlorides diffusion coefficient D ns , are determined adjusting the Equation 2 for the chlorides content measured, by a linear regression analysis according to the least squares.
For producing the graph, it was necessary to fix some parameters. The upper limit value considered for depassivation of reinforcement was 0. This is also an average value between the Brazilian standard NBR [ 40 ] of 0. Additionally, 0. The chlorides concentration in the concrete surface C s adopted was 0. However, this value is object of discussion.
NUNES et al. Thus, the 0. A brief analysis of the test results is presented first, followed by a thorough analysis and discussion of the different test methods. Figure 6 presents compressive strength results at 28, 91 and days.
This is justified by the pore filling effect provided by the fine metakaolin particles, along with the calcium silicate hydrate C-S-H gel formation in the hydrated cement compounds provided by the pozzolanic activity. The pozzolanic reaction converts a material rich in silica and without cementing properties into C-S-H. Generally, the compressive strength gain remained until days. DUAN et al. Similarly, this research noted that there was no significant increase after 91 days, remaining the compressive strength somewhat stable, within the deviation limits.
This is possibly also justified by the near completion of the pozzolanic reaction, when the cement enabling compounds CH are not available to further produce the chemical reactions.
Note: The percentage values indicate the results variation related to the reference concrete of same age. This presents an increase in CPR of mixtures with higher metakaolin content. In Figure 8 , it can be seen the chlorides concentration in the specimens using the colorimetric indicator. ME12 presented a lower penetration depth compared to the other mixtures, demonstrating a better CPR at this metakaolin content. The final depth results were obtained by the average of seven depth readings, as seen in Figure 8E , and the coefficients were determined by Eq.
A high precision digital calliper was used for the depth readings. Figure 9 presents the chloride concentration profile of the multiregime method for REF and ME8 mixtures. The REF mixture presented an earlier start of the steady-state compared to the ME8 mixture; thus, highlighting the improved CPR of the mixture with metakaolin. From the profile graphs of the mixtures, it can be determined the chloride migration coefficients.
Table 6 presents the superficial C s , initial C i and final layer 14 mm chlorides concentration of the mixtures along with the D ns.
Penetration” or ASTM C "Test Method for. Determining the Apparent Chloride Diffusion. Coefficient of Cementitious Mixtures by Bulk. Diffusion," or. • On-site. structure can be tested in accordance with ASTM C or NT BUILD for evaluating the diffusion coefficient. ASTM C  and NT BUILD . 1. Buy ASTM C TEST METHOD FOR DETERMINING THE APPARENT CHLORIDE DIFFUSION COEFFICIENT OF CEMENTITIOUS MIXTURES BY. Home; ASTM Ca(). $; Add to Cart. Printed Edition + PDF; Immediate download; $; Add to Cart. ASTM C Bulk Conductivity of Concrete. N. aOH. N. aCl. V. I. │ . ASTM C Test to Determine the Bulk Diffusion Coefficient of Concrete. Values of D a.
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Ca() Standard Test Method for Determining the Apparent Chloride Diffusion Coefficient of Cementitious Mixtures by Format, Pages, Price. PDF. This standard is issued under the fixed designation C; the 1 This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C09 on. Buy ASTM C Standard Test Method for Determining the Apparent Chloride Diffusion Available Formats: PDF - English, Hardcopy - English. 3. ASTM C - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. ASTM C - ASTM C “Apparent Chloride Diffusion Coefficient of Cementitious Mixtures”. The minimum core diameter as described in C is 75mm (~3″ core. ASTM C  and NT BUILD . 1. Soak saturated specimen in a NaCl solution ( gram NaCl per liter) for at least 35 days. For high quality concretes,. http:/eatthisbook.club and ASTM C provide the means for determining the apparent chloride diffusion. ASTM C is a respected method for determining the bulk diffusion coefficient of concrete. We've performed this test hundreds of times, both for research and. The apparent diffusion coefficient can be easily fit to experimental data obtained from bulk concrete diffusion tests such as ASTM C without.Aug 06, · ASTM C PDF - This standard is issued under the fixed designation C ; the number immediately 1 This test method is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee C09 on. ASTM. astm c terminology relating to concrete and concrete aggregates: astm c 42/c 42m: test method for obtaining and testing drilled cores and sawed beams of concrete: astm c /cm: practice for making and curing concrete test specimens in the laboratory: astm c /cm: Jun 15, · ASTM C states that each sample consists of at least two 2 specimens. The calculation procedure described in C is only applicable to specimens exposed to a sodium chloride solution as described in C, not to specimens exposed to chloride ions during cyclic wetting and drying. Historical Version s – view previous versions of standard. approved in Last previous edition approved in as D – 2 For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, eatthisbook.club, or contact ASTM Customer Service at [email protected] For Annual Book of ASTM Standards volume information, refer to the standard’s Document Summary page on the ASTM website. 1. Test Methods D and D require that mass measurements of laboratory compacted test specimens be determined to the nearest 1 g, so that computed water contents and densities can be reported to three and four significant digits, respectively. This standard is a field procedure requiring mass measurements to the nearest lbm [5 g]. As such, water content calculations should only be. ASTM Designación D - DENSIDAD DE CAMPO POR EL METODO DEL CONO DE ARENA.